Atrial Fibrillation (AF):
- most common cardiac dysrhythmia that requires many people to seek emergency treatment annually
- manifests as an acute or chronic condition
- may be asymptomatic or be sufficiently disabling to restrict normal daily activities.
- Advanced age
- Ischemic heart disease
- Heart failure
- Valvular heart disease
- Sleep apnea
- Diabetes mellitus
- Coronary heart disease
- High-intensity endurance exercise
- Clinical manifestations depend on the presence of risk factors.
- Majority present tolerable symptoms.
- Minority have poorly tolerable symptoms due to angina or hemodynamic decompensation such as in pulmonary edema, hypotension, and circulatory collapse with syncope.