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More than Diamond Crystal: Approaches and Management Strategies for Hyponatremia

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Participants 196

  • April
  • Alyssa
  • Ashley
  • Amber
  • Sherif
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  • Blood brain barrier is impermeable to sodium
  • Astrocytes express aquaporins to maintain water balance
  • TRPV1 receptors in hypothalamus detect tonicity changes in blood
  • Osmolytes are up- or downregulated depending on tonicity

CNS Symptoms of Hyponatremia

Time to Hyponatremia Condition or Behavior Contributing Symptoms
Hours Psychogenic polydipsia Headache, vomiting, seizures, increased intracranial pressure
1-2 days Post-operative SIADH, CSW
>2 days Alcoholism, cirrhosis, malnutrition, others Malaise, fatigue, cramps, falls, seizures when Na+ < 110 mEq/L

Central Pontine Myelinolysis

  • Pons most susceptible region of brain

Pons Cranial Nerves

  • Pons contains neurons for CN V, VI, VII, and VIII