fbpx
Lesson 10 of10
In Progress

Summary

Jimmy September 4, 2021
  • Epinephrine has been recommended by guidelines since 1974, with literature supporting it’s use dating back to 1906.
  • There is controversy as to whether epinpehrine is the preferred vasopressor in cardiac arrest due to potential increase in myocardial demand, cerebral vasoconstrictor, and lack of long term data supporting it’s use.
  • Vasopressin is an alternative to epinephrine that has inconsistent data to support it as a superior vasopressor agent in cardiac arrest.
  • Combination therapy with vasopressin, steroids, and epinephrine is a promising drug regimen in cardiac arres the will need further studies to validate it’s use as a standard therapy in patients experiencing cardiac arrest.


References


  • Grmec S, Mally S. Vasopressin improves outcome in out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia: a observational cohort study. Crit Care. 2006 Feb;10(1):R13. doi: 10.1186/cc3967. PMID: 16420660; PMCID: PMC1550861.
  • Lindner KH, Prengel AW, Brinkmann A, et al. Vasopressin administration in refractory cardiac arrest. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:1061–4.
  • Morris DC, Dereczyk BE, Grzybowsky M, et al. Vasopressin can increase coronary perfusion pressure during human cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Acad Emerg Med 1997;4: 878–83.
  • Lindner KH, Dirks B, Strohmenger HU, Prengel AW, Lindner IM, Lurie KG. Randomised comparison of epinephrine and vasopressin in patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Lancet 1997;349:535–7.
  • Li PJ, Chen TT, Zhang JM, Guo M. Clinical study on administration of vasopressin during closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Chin Crit Care Med 1999;11:28–31.
  • Lee CC, Jung YS, Yoon SK, et al. Vasopressin administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest [abstr]. Ann Emerg Med 2000;36:S91.
  • Stiell I, Hebert P, Wells G, et al. Vasopressin versus epinephrine for in-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2001;358:105–9.
  • Wenzel V, Krismer AC, Arntz HR, Sitter H, Stadlbauer KH, Lindner KH. A comparison of vasopressin and epinephrine for out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. N Engl J Med  2004;350:105–13
  • Guyette FX, Guimond GE, Hostler D, Callaway CW. Vasopressin administered with epinephrine is associated with a return of a pulse in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 2004;63:277–82
  • Carroll TG, Dimas VV, Raymond TT. Vasopressin rescue for in-pediatric intensive care unit cardiopulmonary arrest refractory to initial epinephrine dosing: a prospective feasibility pilot trial. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2012;13:265 –272.
  • Callaway CW, Hostler D, Doshi AA, Pinchalk M, Roth RN, Lubin J, Newman DH, Kelly LJ. Usefulness of vasopressin administered with epinephrine during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Am J Cardiol 2006;98:1316 – 1321.
  • Mukoyama T, Kinoshita K, Nagao K, Tanjoh K. Reduced effectiveness of vasopressin in repeated doses for patients undergoing prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 2009;80:755 – 761.
  • Ong ME, Tiah L, Leong BS, Tan EC, Ong VY, Tan EA, Poh BY, Pek PP, Chen Y. A randomised, double-blind, multi-centre trial comparing vasopressin and adrenaline in patients with cardiac arrest presenting to or in the emergency department. Resuscitation 2012;83:953 –960.
  • Turner DW, Attridge RL, Hughes DW. Vasopressin associated with an increase in return of spontaneous circulation in acidotic cardiopulmonary arrest patients. Ann Pharmacother 2014;48:986 –991.
  • Benjamin EJ , Blaha MJ , Chiuve SE ,  et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation . 2017;135:e146–e603.  [PubMed: 28122885]
  • Hayashi M , Shimizu W , Albert CM . The spectrum of epidemiology underlying sudden cardiac death. Circ Res . 2015;116:1887–1906.  [PubMed: 26044246]
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) National Summary Report. 2018. https://mycares.net/sitepages/uploads/2017/2016%20Non-Traumatic%20National%20Summary%20Report.pdf.
  • Atkins DL , Everson-Stewart S , Sears GK ,  et al. Epidemiology and outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in children: the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Epistry-Cardiac Arrest. Circulation . 2009;119:1484–1491.  [PubMed: 19273724]
  • Barletta JF. Barletta J.F. Barletta, Jeffrey F.Cardiac Arrest. In: DiPiro JT, Yee GC, Posey L, Haines ST, Nolin TD, Ellingrod V. DiPiro J.T., & Yee G.C., & Posey L, & Haines S.T., & Nolin T.D., & Ellingrod V(Eds.),Eds. Joseph T. DiPiro, et al.eds. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach, 11e. McGraw Hill; 2020. Accessed September 16, 2021. https://accesspharmacy-mhmedical-com.pallas2.tcl.sc.edu/content.aspx?bookid=2577&sectionid=219308332
  • Abella BS, Leary M. Abella B.S., & Leary M Abella, Benjamin S., and Marion Leary.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. In: Hall JB, Schmidt GA, Kress JP. Hall J.B., & Schmidt G.A., & Kress J.P.(Eds.),Eds. Jesse B. Hall, et al.eds. Principles of Critical Care, 4e. McGraw Hill; 2014. Accessed September 16, 2021. https://accessmedicine-mhmedical-com.pallas2.tcl.sc.edu/content.aspx?bookid=1340&sectionid=80030087
  • Attaran RR, Ewy GA. Epinephrine in resuscitation: curse or cure? Future Cardiol. 2010 Jul;6(4):473-82. doi: 10.2217/fca.10.24. PMID: 20608820.
  • Lundin A, Djärv T, Engdahl J, Hollenberg J, Nordberg P, Ravn-Fischer A, Ringh M, Rysz S, Svensson L, Herlitz J, Lundgren P. Drug therapy in cardiac arrest: a review of the literature. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother. 2016 Jan;2(1):54-75. doi: 10.1093/ehjcvp/pvv047. Epub 2015 Nov 26. PMID: 27533062.
  • Pellacani P: Arch. Sci. Med. III (1874).
  • Gottlieb R: Ueber die Wirkung der Nebennierenextracte auf herz und blutdruk. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol. 38, 99–112 (1896).
  • Crile G, Dolley DH: An experimental research into the resuscitation of dogs killed by anesthetics and asphyxia. J.Exp. Med. 8(6), 713–725 (1906).
  • Pearson JW, Redding JS: Epinephrine in cardiac resuscitation. Am. Heart J. 66, 210–214 (1963).
  • Kleinman ME, Brennan EE, Goldberger ZD, Swor RA, Terry M, Bobrow BJ, Gazmuri RJ, Travers AH, Rea T. Part 5: Adult Basic Life Support and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality: 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation. 2015 Nov 3;132(18 Suppl 2):S414-35. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000259. PMID: 26472993.
  • Harris AW, Kudenchuk PJ. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: the science behind the hands. Heart. 2018 Jul;104(13):1056-1061. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2017-312696. Epub 2018 Jan 20. PMID: 29353251.
  • Benjamin EJ, Muntner P, Alonso A,et al; American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2019 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2019 Mar 5;139(10):e56-e528. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000659. Erratum in: Circulation. 2020 Jan 14;141(2):e33. PMID: 30700139.
  • Soto-Ruiz KM, Varon J. Resuscitation great. George W. Crile: a visionary mind in resuscitation. Resuscitation. 2009 Jan;80(1):6-8. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2008.09.008. Epub 2008 Oct 31. PMID: 18951679.
  • Standards for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiac Care (ECC). JAMA. 1974 Feb 18;227(7):833-868. doi: 10.1001/jama.227.7.833. PMID: 28834958.
  • European Resuscitation Council.. Part 6: advanced cardiovascular life support. Section 6: pharmacology II: agents to optimize cardiac output and blood pressure. European Resuscitation Council. Resuscitation. 2000 Aug 23;46(1-3):155-62. doi: 10.1016/s0300-9572(00)00279-3. PMID: 10978796.
  • Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care. Emergency Cardiac Care Committee and Subcommittees, American Heart Association. Part I. Introduction. JAMA. 1992 Oct 28;268(16):2171-83. PMID: 1404767.
  • Lin S, Callaway CW, Shah PS, Wagner JD, Beyene J, Ziegler CP, Morrison LJ. Adrenaline for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Resuscitation. 2014 Jun;85(6):732-40. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2014.03.008. Epub 2014 Mar 15. PMID: 24642404.
  • Stiell IG, Wells GA, Field B, Spaite DW, Nesbitt LP, De Maio VJ, Nichol G, Cousineau D, Blackburn J, Munkley D, Luinstra-Toohey L, Campeau T, Dagnone E, Lyver M; Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support Study Group. Advanced cardiac life support in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 2004 Aug 12;351(7):647-56. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa040325. PMID: 15306666.
  • Hagihara A, Hasegawa M, Abe T, Nagata T, Wakata Y, Miyazaki S. Prehospital epinephrine use and survival among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA. 2012 Mar 21;307(11):1161-8. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.294. PMID: 22436956.